**Common Lisp the Language, 2nd Edition**

The following functions extract from an array interesting information other than the elements.

**[Function]**

`array-element-type array`

`array-element-type` returns a type specifier for the set of objects
that can be stored in the *array*. This set may be larger than the
set requested when the array was created; for example,
the result of

(array-element-type (make-array 5 :element-type '(mod 5)))

could be `(mod 5)`, `(mod 8)`, `fixnum`, `t`, or any other
type of which `(mod 5)` is a subtype. See `subtypep`.

**[Function]**

`array-rank array`

This returns the number of dimensions (axes) of *array*.
This will be a non-negative integer.
See `array-rank-limit`.

**[Function]**

`array-dimension array axis-number`

The length of dimension number *axis-number* of the *array* is returned.
*array* may be any kind of array, and *axis-number* should
be a non-negative integer less than the rank of *array*.
If the *array* is a vector with a fill pointer,
`array-dimension` returns the total size of the vector,
including inactive elements,
not the size indicated by the fill pointer.
(The function `length` will return the size indicated
by the fill pointer.)

**[Function]**

`array-dimensions array`

`array-dimensions` returns a list whose elements are the dimensions
of *array*.

**[Function]**

`array-total-size array`

`array-total-size` returns the total number of elements in the *array*,
calculated as the product of all the dimensions.

(array-total-sizex) == (apply #'* (array-dimensionsx)) == (reduce #'* (array-dimensionsx))

Note that the total size of a zero-dimensional array is `1`.
The total size of a one-dimensional array is calculated without regard
for any fill pointer.

**[Function]**

`array-in-bounds-p array &rest subscripts`

This predicate checks whether the *subscripts* are all
legal subscripts for *array*. The predicate is true if they
are all legal; otherwise it is false. The *subscripts* must be integers.
The number of *subscripts* supplied must equal the rank of the array.
Like `aref`, `array-in-bounds-p` ignores fill pointers.

**[Function]**

`array-row-major-index array &rest subscripts`

This function takes an array and valid subscripts for the array
and returns a single non-negative integer less than the total size
of the array that identifies the
accessed element in the row-major ordering of the elements.
The number of *subscripts* supplied must equal the rank of the array.
Each subscript must be a non-negative integer less than the
corresponding array dimension.
Like `aref`, `array-row-major-index` ignores fill pointers.

A possible definition of `array-row-major-index`, with no error checking,
would be

(defun array-row-major-index (a&restsubscripts) (apply #'+ (maplist #'(lambda (x y) (* (car x) (apply #'* (cdr y)))) subscripts (array-dimensions a))))

For a one-dimensional array, the result of `array-row-major-index`
always equals the supplied subscript.

**[Function]**

`row-major-aref array index`

X3J13 voted in March 1988
(AREF-1D)
to add the function `row-major-aref`.
This allows any array element to be accessed as if the containing array
were one-dimensional. The *index* must be a non-negative integer
less than the total size of the *array*. It indexes into the array as
if its elements were arranged one-dimensionally in row-major order.
It may be understood in terms of `aref` as follows:

(row-major-arefarrayindex) == (aref (make-array (array-total-size array)) :displaced-to array :element-type (array-element-type array)) index)

In other words, one may treat an array as one-dimensional by creating
a new one-dimensional array that is displaced to the old one and then
accessing the new array.
Alternatively, `aref` may be understood in terms of `row-major-aref`:

(arefarray... ) == (row-major-aref array (array-row-major-index array ... )

That is, a multidimensional array access is equivalent to a row-major access using an equivalent row-major index.

Like `aref`, `row-major-aref` completely ignores fill pointers.
A call to `row-major-setf` is suitable for use as a *place* for `setf`.

This operation makes it easier to write code that efficiently processes
arrays of any rank. Suppose, for example, that one wishes to set every
element of an array `tennis-scores` to zero. One might write

(fill (make-array (array-total-size tennis-scores) :element-type (array-element-type tennis-scores) :displaced-to tennis-scores) 0)

Unfortunately, this incurs the overhead of creating a displaced array,
and `fill` cannot be applied to multidimensional arrays.
Another approach would be to handle each possible rank separately:

(ecase (array-rank tennis-scores) (0 (setf (aref tennis-scores) 0)) (1 (dotimes (i0 (array-dimension tennis-scores 0)) (setf (aref tennis-scores i0) 0))) (2 (dotimes (i0 (array-dimension tennis-scores 0)) (dotimes (i1 (array-dimension tennis-scores 1)) (setf (aref tennis-scores i0 i1) 0)))) ... (7 (dotimes (i0 (array-dimension tennis-scores 0)) (dotimes (i1 (array-dimension tennis-scores 1)) (dotimes (i2 (array-dimension tennis-scores 1)) (dotimes (i3 (array-dimension tennis-scores 1)) (dotimes (i4 (array-dimension tennis-scores 1)) (dotimes (i5 (array-dimension tennis-scores 1)) (dotimes (i6 (array-dimension tennis-scores 1)) (setf (aref tennis-scores i0 i1 i2 i3 i4 i5 i6) 0))))))))) )

It is easy to get tired of writing such code. Furthermore, this approach is undesirable because some implementations of Common Lisp will in fact correctly support arrays of rank greater than 7 (though no implementation is required to do so). A recursively nested loop does the job, but it is still pretty hairy:

(labels ((grok-any-rank (&rest indices) (let ((d (- (array-rank tennis-scores) (length indices))) (if (= d 0) (setf (apply #'row-major-aref indices) 0) (dotimes (i (array-dimension tennis-scores (- d 1))) (apply #'grok-any-rank i indices)))))) (grok-any-rank))

Whether this code is particularly efficient depends on many implementation
parameters, such as how `&rest` arguments are handled and how
cleverly calls to `apply` are compiled.
How much easier it is to use `row-major-aref`!

(dotimes (i (array-total-size tennis-scores)) (setf (row-major-aref tennis-scores i) 0))

Surely this code is sweeter than the honeycomb.

**[Function]**

`adjustable-array-p array`

This predicate is true if the argument (which must be an array) is adjustable, and otherwise is false.

X3J13 voted in June 1989
(ADJUST-ARRAY-NOT-ADJUSTABLE)
to clarify that `adjustable-array-p` is true of an array
if and only if `adjust-array`, when applied to that array,
will return the same array, that is, an array `eq` to the original array.
If the `:adjustable` argument
to `make-array` is non-`nil` when an array is created,
then `adjustable-array-p` must be true of that array.
If an array is created with the `:adjustable` argument `nil`
(or omitted), then `adjustable-array-p` may be true or false of that
array, depending on the implementation.
X3J13 further voted to *define*
the terminology ``adjustable array'' to mean precisely ``an array of
which `adjustable-array-p` is true.''
See `make-array` and `adjust-array`.

AI.Repository@cs.cmu.edu